Federal Register: August 17, 2010 (Volume 75, Number 158)

DOCID: fr17au10-12 FR Doc 2010-19965

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

Workers Compensation Programs Office

CFR Citation: 50 CFR Part 17

Docket ID: [Docket No. FWS-R9-ES-2009-0092; 90100-16601-FLA-B6]

RIN ID: RIN 1018-AV76

NOTICE: Part II

DOCID: fr17au10-12

DOCUMENT ACTION: Final rule.

SUBJECT CATEGORY:

Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Three Foreign Bird Species From Latin America and the Caribbean as Endangered Throughout Their Range

DATES: This final rule is effective September 16, 2010.

DOCUMENT SUMMARY:

We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), determine endangered status for three species of birds from Latin America and the Caribbeanthe Andean flamingo (Phoenicoparrus andinus), the Chilean woodstar (Eulidia yarrellii), and the St. Lucia forest thrush (Cichlherminia lherminieri sanctaeluciae)under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act).

SUMMARY:

Interior Department, Fish and Wildlife Service

SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION

Background

In this final rule, we determine endangered status for the Andean flamingo (Phoenicoparrus andinus), the Chilean woodstar (Eulidia yarrellii), and the St. Lucia forest thrush (Cichlherminia lherminieri sanctaeluciae).

Previous Federal Actions

On November 24, 1980, we received a petition (1980 petition) from Dr. Warren B. King, Chairman of the International Council for Bird Preservation (ICBP), to add 60 foreign bird species to the List of Threatened and Endangered Wildlife (50 CFR 17.11(h)), including two species (the Chilean woodstar and the St. Lucia forest thrush) that are the subject of this final rule. In response to the 1980 petition, we published a positive 90day finding on May 12, 1981 (46 FR 26464) for 58 foreign species, noting that 2 of the foreign species identified in the petition were already listed under the Act, and initiated a status review. On January 20, 1984 (49 FR 2485), we published a 12month finding within an annual review on pending petitions and description of progress on all species petition findings addressed therein. In that notice, we found that all 58 foreign bird species from the 1980 petition were warranted but precluded by higher priority listing actions. On May 10, 1985, we published the first annual notice (50 FR 19761), in which we continued to find that listing all 58 foreign bird species from the 1980 petition was warranted but precluded. In our next annual notice, published on January 9, 1986 (51 FR 996), we found that listing 54 species from the 1980 petition, including the 2 species that are the subject of this final rule, continued to be warranted but precluded, whereas new information caused us to find that listing 4 other species in the 1980 petition was no longer warranted. We published additional annual notices on the remaining 54 species included in the 1980 petition on July 7, 1988 (53 FR 25511); December 29, 1988 (53 FR 52746); and November 21, 1991 (56 FR 58664), in which we indicated that listing the Chilean woodstar and the St. Lucia forest thrush, along with the remaining species in the 1980 petition, continued to be warranted but precluded.

On May 6, 1991, we received a petition (hereafter referred to as the 1991 petition) from ICBP, to add 53 species of foreign birds to the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife, including the Andean flamingo, also the subject of this final rule. In response to the 1991 petition, we published a positive 90day finding on December 16, 1991 (56 FR 65207), for all 53 species, and announced the initiation of a status review. On March 28, 1994 (59 FR 14496), we published a 12month finding on the 1991 petition, along with a proposed rule to list 30 African birds under the Act (15 each from the 1980 petition and 1991 petition). In that document, we announced our finding that listing the remaining 38 species from the 1991 petition, including Andean flamingo, was warranted but precluded by higher priority listing actions. On January 12, 1995 (60 FR 2899), we published the final rule to list the 30 African birds and reiterated the warrantedbutprecluded status of the remaining species from the 1991 petition. We made subsequent warrantedbutprecluded findings for all outstanding foreign species from the 1980 and 1991 petitions, including the three species that are the subject of this final rule, as published in our annual notice of review (ANOR) on May 21, 2004 (69 FR 29354), and April 23, 2007 (72 FR 20184).

Per the Service's listing priority guidelines (September 21, 1983; 48 FR 43098), our 2007 ANOR identified the listing priority numbers (LPNs) (ranging from 1 to 12) for all outstanding foreign species. The LPNs for the three species of birds in this final rule were as follows: Andean flamingo (LPN 2), Chilean woodstar (LPN 4), and St. Lucia forest thrush (LPN 3).

On January 23, 2008, the United States District Court for the Northern District of California ordered the Service to issue proposed listing rules for five foreign bird species, actions which had been previously determined to be warranted but precluded: Andean flamingo (Phoenicoparrus andinus), blackbreasted puffleg (Eriocnemis nigrivestis), Chilean woodstar (Eulidia yarrellii), medium tree finch (Camarhynchus pauper), and St. Lucia forest thrush (Cichlherminia lherminieri sanctaeluciae). The court ordered the Service to issue proposed listing rules for these species by the end of 2008.

On July 29, 2008 (73 FR 44062), we published in the Federal Register a notice announcing our annual petition findings for foreign species. In that notice, we announced listing to be warranted for 30 foreign bird species, including the 5 species that are subject to the January 23, 2008, court order, of which 3 species are the subject of this final rule. The medium tree finch and blackbreasted puffleg are the subjects of separate rules. The proposed rules for the medium tree finch and blackbreasted puffleg published in the Federal Register on December 8, 2008 (73 FR 74434 and 73 FR 74427, respectively). The final rule for the blackbreasted puffleg published on July 27, 2010 (75 FR 43844).

On December 24, 2008 (73 FR 79226), we published a Federal Register notice proposing endangered status for the Andean flamingo (Phoenicoparrus
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andinus), the Chilean woodstar (Eulidia yarrellii), and the St. Lucia forest thrush (Cichlherminia lherminieri sanctaeluciae). We implemented the Service's peer review process and opened a 60day comment period to solicit scientific and commercial information on the species from all interested parties following publication of the proposed rule. Summary of Comments and Recommendations

In the proposed rule published on December 24, 2008 (73 FR 79226), we requested that all interested parties submit written comments on the proposal by February 23, 2009. We received one comment on the proposed rule from the public that did not support the proposal and one comment that supported the proposal; neither comment contained substantive information. We did not receive any requests for a public hearing. Peer Review

In accordance with our peer review policy published on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 34270), we solicited expert opinion from 12 knowledgeable individuals with scientific expertise that included familiarity with the Andean flamingo, Chilean woodstar, and St. Lucia forest thrush and their habitats, biological needs, and threats. We received responses from three of the peer reviewers, one for each of the species.

We reviewed all comments we received from the peer reviewers for substantive issues and clarifying information regarding the listing of the Andean flamingo, Chilean woodstar, and St. Lucia forest thrush. The peer reviewers generally concurred with our methods and conclusions and provided additional clarifications and suggestions to improve the final rule. Peer reviewer comments and information are addressed and incorporated into the final rule as appropriate.

Species Information and Factors Affecting the Species

Section 4 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1533), and its implementing regulations in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at 50 CFR part 424, set forth the procedures for adding species to the Federal Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. A species may be determined to be an endangered or threatened species due to one or more of the five factors described in section 4(a)(1) of the Act. The five factors are: (A) The present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range; (B) overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes; (C) disease or predation; (D) the inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms; and (E) other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence.

Below is a speciesbyspecies analysis of these five factors. The species are considered in alphabetical order, beginning with the Andean flamingo, and followed by the Chilean woodstar and the St. Lucia forest thrush.
I. Andean flamingo (Phoenicoparrus andinus)

Species Description

Flamingos (Phoenicopteridae) are gregarious, longlived birds that inhabit saline wetlands and breed in colonies (del Hoyo 1992, pp. 509 519; Caziani et al. 2007, pp. 277). The Andean flamingo is the largest member of the Phoenicopteridae family in South America, reaching an adult height of 3.5 feet (ft) (110 centimeters (cm)) (Fjelds[aring] and Krabbe 1990, p. 86). This waterbird is native to low, medium, and highaltitude wetlands in the Andean regions of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and Peru (BirdLife International (BLI) 2008, p. 1; del Hoyo 1992, p. 526), where it is locally known as ``flamenco andino,'' ``parina grande,'' ``pariguana,'' ``pariwana,'' and ``chururu'' (BLI 2006, p. 1; Castro and Varela 1992, p. 26; Davison 2007, p. 2; del Hoyo 1992, p. 526; S[aacute]enz 2006, p. 185).

An adult Andean flamingo has a pale yellow face and pale pink coloring overall. Its upper plumage is brighter pink, with a deeper pink to wine redcolored neck, breast, and wingcoverts (feathers on the upper wing), and prominent black tertial feathers (feathers on the posterior portion of the wing). The bill is pale yellow with a black tip, and the legs and feet are yellow (BLI 2008, p. 1; del Hoyo 1992, p. 526). Young Andean flamingos are grayish in color and achieve full adult plumage in their third year (del Hoyo 1992, p. 526).

Andean flamingo is one of three flamingo species that are endemic to the high Andes of South America (Johnson et al. 1958, p. 299; Johnson 1967, p. 404; del Hoyo et al. 1992, p. 508; Line 2004, pp. 12; Caziani et al. 2007, p. 277; Arengo in litt. 2007, p. 2). All flamingos have pink plumage to varying degrees (del Hoyo 1992, p. 508). The Andean flamingo is distinguished from other South American flamingos by its size (it is the largest in the area), leg coloring (it is the only flamingo with yellow legs), and wing coloring (it has prominent black tertial feathers that form a ``V'' when the flamingo is not in flight) (BLI 2008, p. 1; del Hoyo 1992, p. 526).

Taxonomy

The Andean flamingo was first taxonomically described as Phoenicopterus andinus (Phoenicopteridae family), by Rodulfo Philippi in 1854 (Philippi 1860, p. 164; Hellmayr 1932, p. 448). In 1856, Bonaparte split the genus Phoenicopterus, placing the Andean flamingo in a separate genus, as Phoenicoparrus andinus, along with the sympatric (species inhabiting the same or overlapping geographical areas) James' flamingos (P. jamesi) (Hellmayr and Conover 1948, pp. 273278; Jenkin 1957, p. 405). In 1990, Sibley and Monroe (1990, p. 311) suggested the Andean flamingo should be returned to the genus Phoenicopterus, based on the close genetic relatedness among all flamingo species (Sibley and Ahlquist 1989, as cited in Ramsen et al. 2007, p. 18). However, many contemporary researchers maintain that the Andean flamingo should remain within the genus Phoenicoparrus, based on bill morphology and the lack of a hind toe (BLI 2008, p. 1; Caziani et al. 2007, p. 276; del Hoyo et al. 1992, pp. 508509; Fjelds[aring] and Krabbe 1990, p. 86; Mascitti and Kravetz 2002, pp. 7383; Valqui et al. 2000, p. 110). Therefore, we accept the species as Phoenicoparrus andinus, which is also consistent with the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) species database (UNEPWCMC 2008b, p. 1).

Habitat and Life History

Andean flamingos are native to the Andes Mountains, from southern Peru and southwestern Bolivia to northern Chile and northwestern Argentina. They occupy shallow wetlands, collectively called salars, which are characterized as shallow, often saline, lakes (known locally as ``lagos'' or ``lagunas'') with exposed saltflats or mudflats (Boyle et al. 2004, pp. 563564; Caziani et al. 2007, pp. 277; Hurlbert and Keith 1979, pp. 328). Andean flamingos also inhabit ``bofedales,'' which are described as wet, marshy, perennial meadowlands (de la Fuente 2002, p. 1; Ducks Unlimited 2007c, p. 1). These wetlands are found at various elevations, including: (1) The high Andes, referred to as ``altiplano'' (Spanish for ``high plains''), generally above 13,123 ft (4,000 meters (m)); (2) the ``puna'' (Spanish for ``highlands''), between 9,843 and 13,123 ft (3,000 and 4,000 m); and (3) the lowlands, below 9,843 ft (3,000 m) (Caziani et al. 2001, p. 103; Caziani et al. 2007, p. 278). Andean flamingos generally occupy wetlands that are less than 3 ft (1 m)
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deep (Fjelds[aring] and Krabbe 1990, p. 86; Mascitti and

Caste[ntilde]era 2006, p. 331).

Most of the wetlands in which Andean flamingos are found are ``endoreic,'' ``endorheic,'' or closed. These terms refer to internallydraining water networks prevalent in the Andes that are characterized by rivers or bodies of water that do not drain into the sea, but either dry up or terminate in a basin (Caziani et al. 2001, p. 103; Hurlbert and Keith 1979, p. 328). The water levels at these basins expand and contract seasonally and depend in large part on summer rains to ``recharge'' or refill them (Bucher 1992, p. 182; Caziani and Derlindati 2000, pp. 124125; Caziani et al. 2001, p. 110; Mascitti and Caziani 1997, p. 328).

Andean flamingos are altitudinal and opportunistic migrants (Goldfeder and Blanco 2007, p. 190). During the summer (December to January), Andean flamingos generally reside in the puna and altiplano regions of the Andes, at elevations between 11,483 and 14,764 ft (3,500 and 4,500 m). In the winter, they may move to lower elevationsdown to 210 ft (64 m) above sea levelalong the Peruvian coast and inland primarily to the central plains of Argentina, occasionally to Bolivia, and rarely to Paraguay (Blake 1977, p. 207; BLI 2008, pp. 1 and 6; Boyle et al. 2004, pp. 563564, 570571; Bucher 1992, p. 182; Bucher et al. 2000, p. 119; Caziani et al. 2006. p. 17; Caziani et al. 2007, pp. 277, 279, 281; del Hoyo 1992, p. 514, 519; Fjelds[aring] and Krabbe 1990, p. 85; Hurlbert and Keith 1979, pp. 330; Kahl 1975, pp. 99101; Mascitti and Bonaventura 2002, p. 360; Mascitti and Casta[ntilde]era 2006, p. 328; Romano et al. 2006, p. 17; Romano et al. 2008, pp. 45 47).

They disperse widely, even while nesting, and can travel long distances, flying from 249 mi (400 km) to 715 mi (1,150 km) daily (Caziani et al. 2003, p. 11; Caziani et al. 2007, p. 277; Conway 2000, p. 212; del Hoyo 1992, pp. 509519; Fjelds[aring] and Krabbe 1990, p. 85). Their movements are unpredictable and appear to be influenced by varying environmental conditions affecting the availability of wetlands (Bucher et al. 2000, p. 119; del Hoyo 1992, p. 514 and 516; Fjelds[aring] and Krabbe 1990, p. 85). When climatic conditions are favorable, breeding takes place, and when climatic conditions are unfavorable, breeding is abandoned, very limited, or takes place at alternative, lessproductive breeding grounds (e.g., Bucher et al. 2000, pp. 119120).

All flamingos were believed to be monogamous, with a strong pair bonding tendency that may be maintained from one breeding season to the next (del Hoyo 1992, p. 514). However, studies on greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) show that mateswitching is common and they are only seasonally monogamous (Cezilly and Johnson 2005, p. 545). Andean flamingos nest at high densities, with breeding colonies consisting of up to thousands of pairs (del Hoyo 1992, p. 526). Andean flamingos reach sexual maturity between 3 and 5 years of age (Bucher 1992, p. 183). Breeding season for the Andean flamingo occurs in the summer, generally from December through February (BLI 2008, p. 2; del Hoyo et al. 1992, p. 516; Fjelds[aring] and Krabbe 1990, p. 85; Hurlbert and Keith 1979, pp. 328), although the breeding season may begin as early as October and continue through April (Goldfeder and Blanco 2007, p. 190). Both sexes share in nestbuilding and nesting (Bucher 1992, p. 182). Nests are built on the miry clay or transient islands of shallow lakes (del Hoyo 1992, pp. 514, 516). Each nest consists of a clay mound, up to 16 inches (in) (40 cm) high, with a small depression on top (del Hoyo et al. 1992, p. 516; Fjelds[aring] and Krabbe 1990, p. 85). Flamingos lay a single white egg, usually in December or January, and incubation lasts about 28 days (del Hoyo et al. 1992, p. 526). If the egg is destroyed from flooding or predation, the pair may reclutch (lay a replacement egg), but only if the loss occurs within a few days of the first egg being laid (del Hoyo et al. 1992, p. 516).

Chicks remain in the nest 512 days, during which time both the parents feed the chick with ``milk'' secretions formed by glands in their upper digestive tracts (Fjelds[aring] and Krabbe 1990, p. 85; del Hoyo et al. 1992, p. 513). Feeding is shared by parents, in approximately 24hour shifts (Bucher 1992, p. 182). When flamingo chicks leave the nest, they form large nursery cr[egrave]ches (groups) of hundreds or thousands of birds that are tended by a few adults (del Hoyo et al. 1992, p. 516).

Flamingo breeding habits can vary widely from year to year. Flamingos may breed in large numbers for 2 or more successive years, followed by other years in which there is no known breeding. Not all sexually mature adults breed every year and, even in years of breeding, not all sexually mature adults will participate (Bucher 1992, p. 183). Flamingos are generally considered to have poor breeding success (Fjelds[aring] and Krabbe 1990, p. 85), and Andean flamingos, in particular, have experienced periods of very low breeding success over the past 20 years (Arengo in litt. 2007, p. 2) (See Population Estimates, below). Juvenile mortality rates during dispersal are unknown (Caziani et al. 2007, p. 284), and adult survival is considered to be ``very high'' (Fjelds[aring] and Krabbe 1990, p. 85). Andean flamingos are longlived, with an average lifespan of 20 to 30 years. Some wild adults live up to 50 years (BLI 2008, p. 2; del Hoyo et al. 1992, p. 517). Recent trends in breeding success are further discussed under Population Estimates, below.

Andean flamingos are wading filterfeeders, often forming large feeding flocks at wetlands alongside sympatric flamingos, Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis), and James' flamingos (del Hoyo 1992, p. 512; Mascitti and Casta[ntilde]era 2006, pp. 328329). Andean flamingos feed principally on diatoms (microscopic onecelled or colonial algae) (Mascitti and Kravetz 2002, p. 78), especially those in the genus Surirella (no common name), which is a dominant component of surface sediments at the bottom of many altiplano lakes in the Andes (Fjelds[aring] and Krabbe 1990, p. 86; Hurlbert and Chang 1983, p. 4768).

Historical Range and Distribution

The Andean flamingo type specimen (the specimen that was first described by Philippi in 1854) was collected from Salar de Atacama, in Antofagasta Province (Chile) (Hellmayr 1932, p. 312). Salar de Atacama is, therefore, referred to as the ``type locality.'' The species was subsequently reported in Argentina in 1872 (Provinces of Jujuy and Tucum[aacute]n) (Burmeister 1872, p. 364; Hellmayr and Conover 1948, p. 277), Peru (Departments of Salinas and Arequipa) in 1886 (Hellmayr 1932, p. 312; Hellmayr and Conover 1948, p. 277; Weberbauer 1911, p. 27), and Bolivia in 1902 (Department of Oruru) (Hellmayr and Conover 1948, p. 277; Johnson et al. 1958, p. 289).

The species' movements and distribution within its range were not understood throughout much of the 20th century. Early researchers considered the Andean flamingo to be relatively sedentary (Jenkin 1957, p. 405; Johnson et al. 1958, pp. 297298), with a distribution that did not extend below 10,000 ft (3,048 m) (Hellmayr 1932, p. 25; Johnson 1967, p. 405). Later researchers remarked on the nomadic nature of the species (McFarlane 1975, p. 88) and reported lower limits to the species' distribution (i.e., 8,200 ft (2,500 m) (Kahl 1975; pp. 99 100)). Hurlbert and Keith (1979, pp. 334, 336) noted a seasonal variance in the species' altitudinal distribution, and Bucher (1992, p. 182) noted that migration might take place between Chilean breeding grounds and Argentinian wetlands.
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Current Range and Distribution

The current range of the Andean flamingo extends from Peru, through Chile and Bolivia, to Argentina, in wetlands at elevations ranging from sea level (in southern Peru) to 14,764 ft (64 to 4,500 m) (Arengo 2009, p. 16; BLI 2008, pp. 1, 6; Bucher 1992, p. 192; Bucher et al. 2000, p. 119; del Hoyo 1992, pp. 514; Fjelds[aring] and Krabbe 1990, p. 85). In 1989, an immature Andean flamingothat had been banded in Chile earlier that yearwas captured in Brazil (Sick 1993, p. 154). There were additional sightings of the Andean flamingo in Brazil in the 1990s (Bornschein and Reinert 1996, pp. 807808). However, the species is considered a nonbreeding ``vagrant'' in Brazil (BLI 2008, p. 5).

Its total extent of occurrence (including sites where breeding does not occur) is estimated as 124,711 square miles (mi\2\) (323,000 square kilometers (km\2\)). The estimated area in which the species is known to breed and reside yearround is 72,973 square miles (mi\2\) (189,000 square kilometers (km\2\)) (BLI 2008, p. 4).

The species' seemingly erratic movements and ability to disperse widely, combined with the harsh climatic conditions and the inaccessibility of flamingo habitat, have made it difficult for researchers to fully understand their seasonal movements and breeding habits (Bucher et al. 2000, p. 119; del Hoyo 1992, p. 514; Fjelds[aring] and Krabbe 1990, p. 85) (see also Habitat and Life History, above). Researchers have long considered Chilean wetlands to be the primary breeding grounds for the species (Bucher et al. 2000, p. 119; Ducks Unlimited 2007c, pp. 14; Fjelds[aring] and Krabbe 1990, p. 86; Johnson et al. 1958, p. 296; Kahl 1975 p. 100), although between 2005 and 2008, Andean flamingos bred in significant numbers in Bolivia (Laguna Colorada, Laguna Khara) and smaller colonies have been observed in Argentina (Laguna de Vilama, Laguna Grande) (Arengo 2009, p. 17). Researchers have only recently confirmed that the species is an altitudinal and opportunistic migrant (Goldfeder and Blanco 2007, p. 190). Simultaneous censuses undertaken since 1997 confirmed that Andean flamingos migrate altitudinally. In the summer, most of the population is concentrated primarily in Chile, and to a lesser extent in Argentina and Bolivia. In winter, the species may converge in certain Chilean and Peruvian wetlands (Valqui et al. 2000, p. 111), with relatively large numbers of birds overwintering in Bolivia and Argentina in some years (Caziani et al. 2007, pp. 279, 281; Romano et al. 2008, pp. 4547). Recent banding studies confirmed that Andean flamingos at highaltitude wetlands move to lower altitude lakes, where weather conditions are less severe (Rocha and Rodriguez 2006, p. 12).

Andean flamingos occupy some wetlands year round (where they may or may not breed), some wetlands only during the summer breeding season, and other wetlands only in winter (see Table 1). Recent research established that there is an important, complementary link between breeding and nonbreeding wetlands frequented by Andean flamingos (Derlindati 2008, p. 10). Research in Argentina at highland (breeding) and lowland (nonbreeding) sites indicated that, regardless of season, Andean flamingos spend the majority of their time eating (Derlindati 2008, p. 10). They will travel to different wetlands to feed, even while nesting (Bucher 1992, p. 182; Caziani et al. 2007, p. 277; Conway 2000, p. 212; del Hoyo 1992, pp. 509519). Research in Argentina at highelevation breeding sites and lowelevation nonbreeding sites indicated that given the timing of courtship in the annual cycle, lowland sites were important in providing foraging and courtship habitat necessary for successful breeding at highaltitude sites (Derlindati 2008, p. 10).

Several Andean flamingo localities in each range country are described below and in Table 1, organized in alphabetical order by country and name of wetland. This is not an exhaustive accounting of all known wetlands occupied by the species, but includes sites that are frequented by the species or are otherwise notable, such as recently discovered breeding sites. In Table 1, ``Type'' indicates whether the site is known as a breeding (B) or nonbreeding (NB) wetland. In most cases, NB indicates that the species overwinters at the wetland. However, in some cases, Andean flamingos occupy a wetland yearround, but no breeding occurs there. Habitat information was obtained primarily from Ducks Unlimited (2007ad) and BirdLife International (2008).
Table 1Selected Andean Flamingo Nesting and Overwintering Wetlands in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and Peru Elevation in feet/ Area in acres/ Country Wetland Department meters hectares Type Description/comments Argentina............. Laguna Brava......... La Rioja.............. 13,780 ft/4,200 m... 1,977 ac/800 ha..... B/NB........... Large lake associated with an endoreic (closed) river basin that includes Laguna de Mulas Muertas. Argentina............. Laguna de Santa Fe.............. 276295 ft/8490 m.. 29,653 ac/12,000 ha. NB............. One of two lowest Melincu[eacute]. elevation endoreic wetlands used by Andean flamingos. Argentina............. Lagunas de los Catamarca............. 13,911 ft/4,240 m... 343 ac/139 ha....... B/NB........... Shallow lagoon in a Aparejos. larger lagoon system that is lacking in aquatic vegetation. Argentina............. Laguna de Mar C[oacute]rdoba........ 210230 ft/6470 m.. 494,211 ac/200,000 B/NB........... Large, permanent, Chiquita. ha. hypersaline, seasonally fluctuating lake is the lowest elevation locality. Argentina............. Laguna de Mulas La Rioja.............. 13,123 ft/4,000 m... 1730 ac/700 ha...... NB............. Located near and Muertas. part of the same endoreic river basin as Laguna Brava. Argentina............. Laguna de Pozuelos... Jujuy................. 11,483 ft/3,500 m... 24,710 ac/10,000 ha. B/NB........... Central lake within endoreic basin with lower water levels and extensive mudflats in winter. Argentina............. Laguna Guayatayoc.... Jujuy................. 12,008 ft/3,660 m... 247,104 ac/100,000 NB............. Part of large salt ha. basin where endoreic waters form shallow, brackishto hypersaline lakes. [[Page 50818]]
Argentina............. Laguna Vilama........ Jujuy................. 14,436 ft/4,400 m... 19,768 ac/8,000 ha.. B/NB........... Large, permanent endoreic lake, prone to wide water fluctuations and winter freezes. Bolivia............... Lago Poop[oacute].... Oruro................. 12,090 ft/3,685 m... 330,380 ac/133,700 NB............. Large, shallow ha. saline lake in same ancient endoreic river basin as Lago Uru Uru. Bolivia............... Lago Uru Uru......... Oruro................. 12,126 ft/3,696 m... 69,190 ac/28,000 ha. NB............. Along with Lago Poop[oacute], experiences wide fluctuations in water level. Bolivia............... Laguna Colorada...... Potos[iacute]......... 13,944 ft/4,250 m... 12,948 ac/5,240 ha.. B/NB........... Hypersaline endoreic lake fed by streams and thermal springs, with shores that freeze at night. Bolivia............... Laguna Kalina or Potos[iacute]......... 14,862 ft/4,530 m... 3,954 ac/1,600 ha... B/NB........... Hypersaline lake Busch. associated with the same endoreic water basin as Laguna Colorada. Bolivia............... Laguna de Pastos Oruro................. 1315,000 ft/44,500 37,066 ac/15,000 ha. B/NB........... Group of small, Grandes. m. permanent saline lakes in an ancient caldera fed by underground sources. Bolivia............... Salar de Chalviri.... Potos[iacute]......... 14,396 ft/4,388 m... 28,417 ac/11,500 ha. NB............. Basin of many small lakes separated by saltflats, fed by small streams and thermal springs. Bolivia............... Salar de Coipasa..... Oruro................. 12,112 ft/3,692 m... 548,077 ac/221,800 B/NB........... Large salt basin and ha. shallow hypersaline lake, receiving water from R[iacute]o Lauca. Bolivia............... Laguna de Saquewa.... Oruro................. 13,123 ft/4000 m.... .................... NB............. Hypersaline lake associated with Rio Lauca system, receives input from external afluents and underground waters. Chile................. Lago del Negro Atacama............... 13,123 ft/4,000 m... 6,919 ac/2,800 ha... B/NB........... Large highaltitude Francisco. permanent lake surrounded by bofedales. Chile................. Salar de............. Antofagasta........... 12,211 ft/3,722 m... 93,406 ac/37,800 ha. B/NB........... Highaltitude salt Ascot[aacute]n....... basin with many saline lakes on perimeter, fed by several freshwater springs. Chile................. Salar de Atacama..... Antofagasta........... 7,546 ft/2,300 m.... 691,895 ac/280,000 B/NB........... Endoreic salt basin ha. with fluctuating water levels from summer storms and snowmelt. Chile................. Salar de Coposa...... Tarapac[aacute]....... 12,376 ft/3,730 m... 21,003 ac/8,500 ha.. B/NB........... Endoreic salt with small lagoon that fluctuates greatly in size. Chile................. Salar de Huasco...... Tarapac[aacute]....... 13,123 ft/4,000 m... 14,826 ac/6,000 ha.. B/NB........... Salt basin receiving summer rains and fed by snow melt bogs and bofedales. Chile................. Salar de Surire...... Tarapac[aacute]....... 13,583 ft/4,140 m... 61,776 ac/25,000 ha. B/NB........... Permanent saline lake. Peru.................. Lago Parinacochas.... Ayacucho.............. 10,738 ft/3,273 m... 16,556 ac/6,700 ha.. NB............. Shallow, large, brackish endoreic lake and marshes with exposed salt flats in dry season. Peru.................. Laguna de Loriscota.. Puno.................. 15,299 ft/4,663 m... 8525 ac/3,450 ha.... NB............. Permanent, shallow hypersaline lake surrounded by bofedales. Peru.................. Laguna Salinas....... Arequipa.............. 14,091 ft/4,295 m... 17,544 ac/7,100 ha.. NB............. Semipermanent, shallow hypersaline lake with freshwater springs and bofedales on perimeter.

Argentina: Several wetlands in Argentina provide yearround habitat for the Andean flamingo (see Table 1). The species breeds and overwinters regularly at Laguna de Pozuelos and Lagunas de Vilama (Caziani & Derlindati 2000, p. 121; Caziani et al. 2001, p. 113; Caziani et al. 2006, p. 13; Caziani et al. 2007, p. 279; Ducks Unlimited 2007a, pp. 14). The Vilama wetlands system (Lagunas de Vilama) is comprised of 12 lakes: Arenal, Blanca, Caiti, Catal, Cerro Negro, Colpayoc, Guinda, Honda, Isla Grande, Palar, Pululos, and Vilama (Caziani and Derlindati 2000, p. 122; Caziani et al. 2001, p. 103). During a 3year study, Andean flamingos occupied eight of the nine lakes, but were especially concentrated on Laguna Vilama and Laguna Catal (Caziani and Derlindati 2000, p. 125). Caziani et al. 2001 (p. 104) determined that the Vilama wetland system provided a variety of spatial and seasonal ecological conditions on the landscape level, such that a range of options existed from which Andean flamingos could select habitat at any given time during the year. They further suggest that similar landscapelevel relationships between wetlands exist, even when the wetlands are not located within the same basin (Caziani et al. 2001, p. 110). The Lagunas de Vilama wetland has harbored up to 30 percent of Andean flamingos during the breeding season (Caziani & Derlindati 2000, p. 121; Caziani et al. 2006, p. 13).

In recent decades, the species has nested or overwintered in locations not previously recorded. In January 1998, the first account of Andean flamingos nesting was reported at Laguna Brava (Bucher et al. 2000, p. 119), which was long known as an overwintering site for [[Page 50819]]
the species (Caziani et al. 2007, p. 279). Since 1998, Laguna Brava has continued to provide isolated nesting sites (de la Fuente 2002, p. 6). Also in January 1998, large numbers of nonbreeding birds were reported at Laguna de Mulas Muertas, just 4 mi (7 km) from Laguna Brava (Bucher et al. 2000, p. 120). Researchers attribute both the large number of breeding birds at Laguna Brava and the large number of nonbreeding birds at Laguna de Mulas Muertas to unusual rainfall patterns that year (Bucher et al. 2000, p. 120). In March 2001, chicks were observed at Lagunas de los Aparejos (Caziani et al. 2007, pp. 279, 283), part of a lagoon system with Laguna Azul and Laguna Negra (BLI 2008, p. 50). Normally known as a nesting site for the James' flamingo (Childress 2005, p. 6), this may now be a nesting site for the Andean flamingo as well (BLI 2008, p. 50).

Andean flamingos overwinter at both high and lowelevation wetlands in Argentina. Laguna Guayatayoc is a highelevation overwintering site for Andean flamingos (Ducks Unlimited 2007a, pp. 1 4), where the species has sometimes been reported in relatively large numbers (Caziani et al. 2001, p. 116; Caziani et al. 2007, p. 279). Laguna de Mar Chiquita is the lowestelevation wetland frequented by the Andean flamingo (Bucher et al 1992, p. 119; Caziani et al. 2007, p. 279; Derlindati 2008, pp. 67). Long known as an overwintering site, researchers report that a small group of Andean flamingos (about 100 individuals) may reside there year round (BLI 2008, p. 1; Bucher 1992, pp. 179, 182), and breeding has recently been reported there (Childress et al. 2005, p. 6). Laguna de Melincu[eacute] is another lowelevation overwintering site for Andean flamingos (Caziani et al. 2007, p. 279). Although breeding has not been reported there (Childress et al. 2005, p. 6), the species engages in nuptial displays vital to reproductive success in the breeding colonies (Derlindati 2008, p. 9). Researchers estimated that in recent years, between 17 and 30 percent of the world population of Andean flamingos overwintered at Laguna de
Melincu[eacute] in winter (Romano et al 2006a, p. 17; Romano et al. 2008, pp. 4547). A recent winter monitoring carried out in lowland wetlands of the southern Santa Fe province (that include
Melincu[eacute] and three other nearby wetlands) has dramatically increased the numbers of Andean Flamingos previously recorded in Argentinean lowland wetlands, reaching 61 percent of the global population (Romano et al. 2008, pp. 4547).

Bolivia: There are at least 10 flamingo nesting sites in Bolivia (Caziani et al. 2006, p. 13). Laguna Colorada is a highaltitude wetland where Andean flamingos remain yearround and where they have recently nested with greater frequency (see Factor B) (BLI 2008, p. 1; Caziani et al. 2006, p. 13; Caziani et al. 2007, p. 279; Davison 2007, p. 1; Ducks Unlimited 2007b, pp. 14; Kahl 1979, p. 100). Laguna Kalina (also known as Laguna Calina and Laguna Busch) has recently figured prominently as a nesting location. Chicks were first reported there in 1997 (Valqui et al. 2000, p. 112), and nesting has been reported there, at small but consistent rates, in 2004, 2005, and 2006 (Childress et al. 2005, p. 6; Childress et al. 2006, p. 5; Childress et al. 2007a, p. 7).

Salar de Pastos Grandes is another lake system that includes Laguna de Pastos Grandes, Laguna Ramaditas, Laguna Hedionda, Laguna Ca[ntilde]apa, Laguna Cachi, Laguna Khara, Laguna Chulluncani, and Laguna Khar Khota (Ducks Unlimited 2007b, p. 13). This wetland complex provides breeding and nonbreeding habitat.

Nonbreeding yearround wetlands in Bolivia include: Lago Uru Uru (Ducks Unlimited 2007b, p. 58; Kahl 1975, p. 100; M[oslash]lgaard et al. 1999; Rocha et al. 2006, p. 18); Salar de Chalviri (Ducks Unlimited 2007b, pp. 1720; Hurlbert & Keith 1979, p. 331); Lago Poop[oacute], a known locality since 1921 (Caziani et al. 2007, p. 279; Hellmayr & Conover 1948, p. 277; Johnson 1967, p. 404); and Salar de Coipasa, a wintering site of known importance for all three South American flamingo species since the mid20th century (Johnson 1967, p. 404; Ducks Unlimited 2007c, p. 9). These lakes are hydrologically connected through the TiticacaDesaguaderoPoop[oacute]Salar de Coipasa (TDPS) basin, a large endoreic (closed) basin shared between Peru, Bolivia, and Chile (Jellison et al. 2004, p. 11). Several Andean flamingo wetlands are connected to this hydrological basin through rivers, including: Lago Poop[oacute] (Bolivia), which is connected to Lago Titicaca (Peru) through R[iacute]o Desaguadero; Salar de Coipasa (Bolivia), which is connected to Lago Poop[oacute] through R[iacute]o Laca Jahuira River (Jellison et al. 2004, p. 11); and Lago Uru Uru, which is fed by R[iacute]o Desaguadero (Ducks Unlimited 2007b, p. 5). In 2000, more than 50 percent of the known population of Andean flamingos overwintered at Lagos Uru Uru and Poop[oacute] (Caziani et al. 2007, p. 279).

Laguna Saquewa and Laguna Macaya are also important sites for the three flamingo species. During winter, Andean Flamingo numbers can reach up to 2,000.

Chile: There are at least a dozen Andean flamingo breeding sites in Chile (Childress et al. 2006, p. 7). Salar de Atacama, where the Andean flamingo type specimen was obtained in 1854 (Hellmayr 1932, p. 312; Philippi 1860, p. 164), has been a consistent and primary breeding ground (Bucher et al. 2000, p. 119; Childress et al. 2007a, p. 7; Ducks Unlimited 2007c, pp. 14; Johnson et al. 1958, p. 296). Several other sites have figured consistently and prominently over the years, including Salar de Surire, Salar de Huasco, and Salar de Ascot[aacute]n (Fjelds[aring] and Krabbe 1990, p. 86; Johnson et al. 1958, p. 296; Kahl 1975 p. 100). Andean flamingos were first observed at Salar de Surire in the early 1970s (McFarlane 1975, p. 88). The first report of breeding (observation of chicks) there occurred in 1997 (Valqui et al. 2000, p. 112), and breeding has continued there at increasing numbers (Caziani et al. 2007, p. 283). Laguna Ascot[aacute]n differs from most other Andean flamingo wetlands, as it is fed by 13 freshwater springs as well as several brackish lagoons (Vilina and Mart[iacute]nez 1998, p. 28). In addition, Salar de Coposa has long served as breeding and overwintering habitat for the Andean flamingo (Caziani et al. 2007, p. 279; Johnson 1958, p. 297; Kahl 1975 p. 100).

Salar de Atacama, Salar de Coposa, Salar de Huasco, Salar de Negro Francisco, and Salar de Surire also provide yearround habitat for the Andean flamingo (Caziani et al. 2006, p. 13; Caziani et al. 2007, p. 279; Ducks Unlimited 2007c, pp. 58; Johnson 1958, p. 296). In 1998 and 2000, between 3,500 and 4,500 birds overwintered at these sites (Caziani et al. 2007, p. 279).

Peru: Andean flamingos frequent several wetlands in Peru (BLI 2008, pp. 5, 72, 7475, 78; Ducks Unlimited 2007d, pp. 21, 25, 29; Jameison and Bingham 1912, p. 14; Ricalde 2003, p. 91). Although BirdLife International reports breeding sites in Peru (2008, p. 2), the Flamingo Specialist Group reported no known nesting sites or evidence of breeding at Peruvian wetlands in 2005, 2006, or 2007 (M. Valqui Munn, in litt., as cited in Childress et al. 2005, p. 6; Arengo in litt., as cited in Childress et al. 2006, p. 6; Arengo in litt., as cited in Childress et al. 2007a, p. 7). The species frequently overwinters at Laguna Salinas, Laguna Loriscota, Laguna Vizcachas, and Lago Parinacochas, among other locations (Caziani et al. 2007, p. 279; Ducks Unlimited 2007d, p. 21, 25, 2930; Jameison and Bingham
[[Page 50820]]
1912, p. 14). It is estimated that nearly 20 percent of the global population overwinters in Peru (Ricalde 2003, p. 91).

Recent Trends in Distribution: In 1997, 50 percent of the breeding population (of breeding age) was distributed among three sites in Chile (Salar de Surire, Laguna Maricunga, and Laguna Negro Francisco) and two sites in Argentina (Pozuelos and Vilama) (Caziani et al. 2007, p. 279). In the summer of 2005, 50 percent of the breeding population was located in 5 separate wetlandsNegro Francisco (Chile), Salar de Surire (Chile), Lagunas de Vilama (Argentina), Laguna Colorada (Bolivia), and Salar de Atacama (Chile) (Caziani et al. 2006, p. 13). Population Estimates

Between 1965 and 1968, Charles Cordier's estimate of the Andean flamingo population varied by an order of magnitude, from 50,000 to 500,000 (as cited in Johnson 1967, p. 404; as cited in Kahl 1975, p. 100). In 1975, Kahl (1975, p. 100) estimated the total population to be 150,000 individuals. This estimate was based on (1) previous estimates; (2) the fact that the largest number of individuals Kahl had seen in one place (Lago Uru Uru, Bolivia) was 18,000 individuals; and (3) that, at most sites, he observed the Andean flamingo to be less numerous than the Chilean flamingo and James' flamingo. In 1986, the population was estimated to be less than 50,000 individuals and declining (Johnson 2000, p. 203). However, the accuracy of earlier population estimates has never been confirmed. According to Arengo (in litt. 2007, p. 2), a member of the Altoandino Flamingo Conservation Group (Grupo de Conservaci[oacute]n Flamencos Altoandinos), previous historical population estimates were based on extrapolations of data that are not considered to be reliable. Experts consider the figure of between 50,000 and 100,000 individuals may have been accurate until the mid 1980s (BLI 2008, p. 1). Although the figure of 150,000 (e.g., Fjelds[aring] and Krabbe 1990, p. 86) was still being reported in the 1990s, an estimate of 50,000 is considered a more accurate figure (Arengo in litt. 2007, p. 2; BLI 2008 p. 1; del Hoyo et al. 1992, p. 526), and experts believe that the species underwent a severe reduction from the mid1980s to the late 1990s (BLI 2008, pp. 1, 5).

The first simultaneous census of Andean flamingos was conducted in 1997 (Valqui et al. 2000, p. 110). Using a comprehensive sampling design and conducting simultaneous surveys at over 200 wetlands in Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina, researchers counted: 33,918 Andean flamingos in January 1997; 27,913 in January 1998; 14,722 in June 1998; and, 24,442 in July 2000 (Caziani et al. 2007, p. 279). In the summer of 2005, a total of 31,617 Andean flamingos were counted (Caziani et al. 2006, p. 13). Recent censuses estimate the global population at around 34,000 individuals (Caziani et al. 2006, pp. 276287; Caziani et al. 2007, pp. 1317).

According to Arengo (in litt. 2007, p. 2), longterm population trends have been difficult to establish, given the unreliability of previous population estimates. However, given that the global population sizes of all other flamingo species are estimated above 100,000 individuals, experts consider the Andean flamingo to be the rarest of the 6 flamingo species (Arengo in litt. 2007, p. 2).

Nesting sites: In the last decade, small groups of Andean flamingos have been reported intermittently nesting at a greater variety of sites, including: Laguna Brava and Lagunas de Vilama (Argentina) (Bucher et al. 2000, p. 119; Caziani et al. 2006, p. 13; Derlindati 2008, pp. 67); Laguna Colorada and Laguna Kalina (Bolivia) (Caziani et al. 2007, p. 279; Childress et al. 2005, p. 6; Childress et al. 2006, p. 5; Childress et al. 2007a, p. 7; Rodriguez Ramirez 2006, as cited in Arengo in litt. 2007, p. 2); and Salar de Punta Negra and Salar de Huasco (Chile) (Bucher et al. 2000, p. 119; Caziani et al. 2007, p. 279; Valqui et al. 2000, p. 112). In recent years, Andean flamingos have been recorded from 25 wetlands survey units, but there were fewer than 100 individuals at many of these sites (Caziani et al. 2007, p. 281). Only 12 wetlands contained more than 100 Andean flamingos at any one of the 4 sampling periods from 1997 to 2000, and breeding has been consistently reported at only 2 of these sites (Arengo in litt. 2007, pp. 23; Bucher et al. 2000, p. 119; Caziani et al. 2007, pp. 279281; Valqui et al. 2000, p. 112).

Breeding success: Productivity estimates from intensive studies of breeding sites in Chile indicate marked fluctuations over the past 20 years, with periods of very low breeding success (Arengo in litt. 2007, p. 2). In 1987, a high of around 15,000 chicks fledged, followed by 10 years of relatively low productivity (fewer than 800 chicks fledged per year on average), and a recent increase to an average of 3,000 chicks fledged since 2000 (Rodriguez Ramirez 2006, Amado et al. 2007, both as cited in Arengo in litt. 2007, pp. 13). Between 1997 and 2001, successful breeding (based on the observation of 23monthold chicks) was documented only at three wetlands and, in those wetlands, a total of only 12,801 chicks were producedSalar de Surire (Chile; 9,200 chicks), Salar de Atacama (Chile; 3,378 chicks), and Aparejos (Argentina; 223 chicks) (Caziani et al. 2007, p. 283).

The most recent simultaneous census data indicate that a total of 2,338 chicks survived at breeding colonies located in Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile during the 20062007 breeding season (December to February) (Childress et al. 2007a, p. 7). In Argentina, eight sites were surveyed, six of which are known Andean flamingo breeding sites. Of these, breeding was attempted at one site, but was unsuccessful. No breeding was reported in Peru during the 20062007 breeding season. Of 4 sites surveyed in Bolivia, 3 of which are known Andean flamingo nesting grounds, breeding occurred at 2 sites (Laguna Colorada and Kalina) producing total of 1,800 chicks. In Chile, breeding was attempted at four sites in Salar de Atacama. A total of 2,900 pairs of Andean flamingos laid eggs but only 538 chicks survived.

Conservation Status

The Andean flamingo is the rarest of six flamingo species worldwide (family Phoenicopteridae). The IUCN considers the Andean flamingo to be ``Vulnerable,'' because (1) it has undergone a rapid population decline, (2) it is exposed to ongoing exploitation and declines in habitat quality, (3) and, although exploitation may decrease, the longevity and slow breeding of flamingos suggest that the legacy of past threats may persist through generations to come (BLI 2008, p. 1). Longlived species with slow rates of reproduction and ongoing poor breeding success, such as that being experienced by the Andean flamingo, can quickly decline towards extinction when reproduction does not keep pace with mortality (BLI 2008, p. 2; Bucher 1992, p. 183; del Hoyo et al. 1992, p. 517) (see Population Estimates, above). Summary of Factors Affecting the Andean Flamingo
A. The Present or Threatened Destruction, Modification, or Curtailment of the Species' Habitat or Range

Andean flamingos occupy shallow, saline wetlands in the lowland, puna, and altoandino regions of the Andes (see Table 1) (BLI 2008, pp. 1, 6; Bucher 1992, p. 192; Bucher et al. 2000, p. 119; Caziani et al. 2007; del Hoyo 1992, pp. 514; Fjelds[aring] and Krabbe 1990, p. 85). Andean flamingos are altitudinal migrants and alternate between [[Page 50821]]
wetlands based largely on environmental conditions and especially the availability of water (Bucher 1992, p. 182; Bucher et al. 2000, p. 119; del Hoyo 1992, pp. 514; Fjelds[aring] and Krabbe 1990, p. 85; Goldfeder and Blanco 2007, p. 190; Hurlbert and Keith 1979, pp. 334, 336; Rocha and Rodriguez 2006, p. 12). During the summer breeding season (December to January), Andean flamingos occupy highelevation wetlands in Chile, Argentina, and Bolivia, and less frequently, Peru. During the winter, they may stay at the highelevation wetlands, or move to lower elevations in Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru (Blake 1977, p. 207; BLI 2008, pp. 1 and 6; Boyle et al. 2004, pp. 563564, 570571; Bucher 1992, p. 182; Bucher et al. 2000, p. 119; Caziani et al. 2006. p. 17; Caziani et al. 2007, pp. 277, 279, 281; del Hoyo 1992, p. 514, 519; Fjelds[aring] and Krabbe 1990, p. 85; Hurlbert and Keith 1979, pp. 330; Kahl 1975, pp. 99101; Mascitti and Bonaventura 2002, p. 360; Mascitti and Casta[ntilde]era 2006, p. 328).

The wetlands occupied by Andean flamingos are utilized on a landscape level (Derlindati 2008, p. 10). Andean flamingos prefer water that is less than 3 ft (1m) deep (Fjelds[aring] and Krabbe 1990, p. 86; Mascitti and Caste[ntilde]era 2006, p. 331) and rely on the variety of habitat options at wetland complexes throughout the species' range to select optimal nesting and feeding sites. Beginning in 2002, researchers conducted a multiyear Andean flamingo dispersal study, to determine overwintering sites and spatial and temporal movements (Caziani et al. 2003, p. 11; Johnson and Arengo 2004, pp. 9, 15). Andean flamingos in Argentina were tracked using satellite transmitters, and results were highly variable. One bird stayed at the origination site (the actual location of which was undisclosed), and another bird traveled 715 mi (1,150 km) over a 4day period, using more than four sites in the process (Caziani et al. 2003, p. 11). The habitats visited included salar lakes, rivers and flooded areas. Flamingos were more mobile during summer to autumn (JanuaryMay), moving between sites often, and less mobile in winter. The birds in this study overwintered at Laguna de Mar Chiquita (Argentina), Lago Poop[oacute] (Bolivia), and Salar de Atacama (Chile) (Caziani et al. 2003, p. 11).

Between 1997 and 2001, 98 percent of Andean flamingo chicks were produced in two Chilean wetlandsSurire (9,200 chicks) and Atacama (3,378 chicks) (Caziani et al. 2007, p. 283). In the 20062007 breeding season, 75 percent of the surviving chicks were produced at Laguna Kalina and Laguna Colorada (1,800 chicks) (Bolivia), and the other 25 percent at Salar de Atacama (538 chicks) (Chile). Sites where breeding does not occur serve as important staging areas for prereproduction mating displays and as feeding locations for nonbreeding flamingos and even breeding flamingos at nearby sites (Derlindati 2008, p. 10). Andean flamingos travel to different wetlands to feed, even while nesting (Bucher 1992, p. 182; Caziani et al. 2007, p. 277; Conway 2000, p. 212; del Hoyo 1992, pp. 509519).

The Andean region where the Andean flamingo occurs is characterized by an extensive series of endoreic (closed) water systems that drain internally, that are recharged primarily by summer rains, that contract seasonally, and that may occasionally dry out completely (see Factor E) (Bucher 1992, p. 182; Caziani and Derlindati 2000, pp. 124125; Caziani et al. 2001, p. 110; Mascitti and Caziani 1997, p. 328).

Mineral extraction, water contamination, water extraction, and water diversion from mining, agriculture, grazing, urban development, and increasing tourism are ongoing activities that negatively impact wetland habitats that support Andean flamingos throughout the species' range (Arengo in litt. 2007, p. 2; Childress et al. 2007a, p. 5; Goldfeder and Blanco 2007, p. 193).

Mineral extraction: There are ongoing mining operations to extract salt, borax, ulexite, sulphur,

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT

Janine VanNorman, Chief, Branch of Foreign Species, Endangered Species Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Room 420, Arlington, VA 22203; telephone 7033582171; facsimile 7033581735. If you use a
telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 8008778339.